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Author Guidelines - General information for authors


Manuscripts must be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are recommended to seek the advice of a native English speaker, if possible, before submitting their manuscripts.  Manuscripts should be typed on one side of the paper only, with one inch margins and double spacing throughout, including the abstract, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc., should be numbered. Try to avoid the excessive use of italics and bold face.  Please use “person first language” and avoid the use of contractions.  If an acronym is used, please spell it out the first time it is used in the article.  All articles should be 1,500 to 2,000 words with up to 20 references.  Remember the readership is a multidisciplinary audience.



Manuscripts should be organized in the following order:

  • Title page
  • Introduction
  • Body of text (divided by sub-headings)
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figure captions
  • Figures.
  • SI units should be used



  • Title (should be clear, descriptive and not too long)
  • Name(s) of author(s); please indicate who is the corresponding author
  • Full affiliation(s)
  • Present address of author(s), if different from affiliation
  • Complete address of corresponding author, including tel. no., fax no. and e-mail address


  • Tables should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. The text should include references to all tables.
  • Each table should be provided on a separate page of the manuscript.  Tables should never be included in the text.
  • Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title.
  • Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses.
  • Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead.
  • Any explanations essential to the understanding of the table should be given in footnotes at the bottom of the table.



  • Figures should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. The text should include references to all figures.
  • Each figure should be provided on a separate sheet. Figures should not be included in the text.
  • Color figures can be included.
  • For the file formats of the figures please take the following into account:
    • line art should be have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi, save as EPS or TIFF
    • grayscales (incl photos) should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (no lettering), or 500 dpi (when there is lettering); save as tiff
    • do not save figures as JPEG, this format may lose information in the process
    • do not use figures taken from the Internet, the resolution will be too low for printing
    • do not use colors in your figures if they should be printed in black & white, because this will reduce the print quality (note that in software often the default is color, you should change the settings)
    • for figures that should be printed in colour, please send both a hard copy (to be used for the paper publication), and a CMYK encoded EPS or TIFF (used for the electronic publication)
  • Each figure should be identified by its number. If necessary, indicate top or bottom of figure.
  • Figures should be designed with the format of the page of the journal in mind. They should be of such a size as to allow a reduction of 50%.
  • Each figure should have a self-explanatory caption. The captions to all figures should be typed on a separate sheet of the manuscript.
  • Photographs are only acceptable if they have good contrast and intensity.


  • For citations in the text numbers between square brackets should be used. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript using APA formatting.



  • Footnotes should only be used if absolutely essential. In most cases it is possible to incorporate the information in the text and numbered in the text, indicated by superscript.



 An author, when quoting from someone else's work or when considering reproducing a figures or table from a book or journal article, should make sure that he is not infringing a copyright. Although in general an author may quote from other published works, he should obtain permission from the holder of the copyright if he wishes to make substantial extracts or to reproduce tables, plates or other figures. If the copyright holder is not the author of the quoted or reproduced material, it is recommended that the permission of the author should also be sought.  A suitable acknowledge-ment of any borrowed material must always be made.



All submissions should be sent directly to Peter Patrick at . If your submission file is too large to send by email, please send a jump drive or CD copy of the files to:   
1435 West Leigh Drive, Charlottesville, VA 22901